Sunday, September 16, 2007

NAME: De Nguyen
DATE: October 31, 2006

International, National, State, and Regional Analysis that Impact Career and Technical (Vocational) Education

Globalization or internationalization refers to growing reliance in a world market and an increasingly interdependence of the world’s economy. The newly merging of global markets such as the European Community, North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the homogenization of tastes is influencing by the media and travel. This merging of the world market certainly changes and affects the global labor market which will, in turn, affect the Career and Technical Education (CTE).
The global economy will influence people's lives and careers from the international to the local level, whether or not they are employed by international firms. The most important influence is the emergence of flexible and information-base technologies. The CTE has generally focused on helping people understand the relationship between education, work, and acquire employability skills. Now with the integration of global labor market, people need assistance to realize the opportunities and meet challenges of the international workplace. The new challenges require the role of CTE to shift its occupational education focuses to meet the needs of the present world labor market in all territories.

International Analysis that Impact Career and Technical (Vocational) Education

The Globalization and the Internationalization of Research on Career and Technical Education by Jay W. Rojewski concerns the focuses of the CTE in training workers to settle in this new international labor market. The new competency required for international workers includes managing information, resources, and relationships with people as well as self-management. Instead of the old-style division of labor into discrete tasks, job functions will converge, and work teams will consist of individuals who are experienced in brokering and leadership roles. The new competitive framework requires a broader training in the technical, communication, and the creation of personal service techniques. The starting point, of course, is basic skills in reading, writing, computation, and most important, the ability to learn continuously throughout life. A number of the skills needed for work in the global economy are reflected in current curriculum. These skills emphasize the development of critical thinking, tech-prep, the integration of vocational and academic education, and the competencies of the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCAN). Career educators can collaborate with vocational and academic educators and employers in documenting the need for these skills and infusing them in a multidisciplinary approach. To some extent, the knowledge of occupational exploration, job search competency, interviewing preparation, career and personal development planning are still important.
The challenges of the global economy are an opportunity not only for organizations to redesign themselves across national borders, but also for education to transcend its traditional boundaries and re-envision ways to prepare people for life and for work.

National Analysis that Impact Career and Technical (Vocational) Education

California Association for Career and Technical Education (CACTE): Strategic Plan 2005-2008 records eight goals which the CACTE is trying to achieve by 2008 nationally. At the national level, the CTE is facing the questions about its role in today’s high school. According to the National Association of state Directors of CTE Consortium 2000, one of the major issues is: does vocational education and processes associated with it belong to today’s high school? The goal of CACTE is to solve the vocational education issues. The effort of the CACTE is to provide leadership in development of an educated, prepared, and competitive workforce, with support from the business, industry, federal government, and legislation.

State Analysis that Impact Career and Technical (Vocational) Education

According to Education Commission of the States: Economic/Workforce Development 2004, in most states, the authority over CTE lies with either higher education governing or coordinating boards, or with the state board of education. In California, the government, mainly state and local, has two roles in CTE:
The first role is to provide funding for education facilities to offer CTE to middle,
high school, and adult learners.
The second role is to set the academic standards and policies to CTE
programs which must comply with and qualify for federal funding (Perkins).
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has significant impacts on the state role in CTE. From the California review 2006, the new state’s purposes included that the Governor should restructure the role of the current Secretary for Education. The Secretary should be charged with synchronizing education, workforce preparation, and advising the Governor on education policy and programs. The Secretary should report directly to the Governor and manage a new Department of Education and Workforce Preparation. The Secretary for Education and Workforce Preparation's strategic goals should be to:
* Develop, implement and disseminate a coherent policy for pre K-20 education
* Ensure that California's education system is coordinated with the growing
needs of the state's labor market for skilled and educated workers
* Ensure the effectiveness and accountability of California's educational
programs and their providers
* Establish coherent financial policy and performance-based budgeting
strategies which are tied to education policy and desired educational
The proposed Department of Education and Workforce Preparation differs from the California Department of Education in its plan to focus on educational policy across the pre-K-20 continuum, implement higher educational policy and programs, and align education with workforce needs. Under the Governor's Reorganization Plan for the California State Government, the California Department of Education's focus will continue to be the administration of pre-K-12 programs. The Superintendent will continue to be an elected office, and the Secretary for Education and Workforce Preparation will be the Governor's appointed spokesperson and advisor on educational matters. These positions are intended to work in a coordinated manner to ensure that California's pre-K-20 education enterprise works smoothly with respect to funding program implementation and over-arching policy.

Regional Analysis that Impact Career and Technical (Vocational) Education

According to California Department of Education 2006 report by the district, the high school drop out rate has become an issue in San Bernardino and Los Angeles County. The California Alliance for Career training in the United States (CACTUS) realizes that there are several solutions and options to young adults. High school graduates may have the option to attend two or four-year colleges or universities, career and occupational program, or the military. Conversely, drop-outs have fewer choices, such as the option for college. High school drop-outs may become a new part of society’s problem through unemployment, crime, and will need public assistance such as welfare (McCauley, 2005). CACTUS should communicate that there are interdependent relationships between young adults and society. If the young adults fail, society cannot benefit.
The military is an alternative option that is available to these young adults. It is true that the military offers considerable CTE and career occupational trainings. This may not be an attractive option for young adults and their parents, but it is the next best choice.


California Association for Career and Technical Education (CACTE): Strategic Plan
2005-200. (n. d.). Retrieved October25, 2006, from http:// www.

California Department of Education Educational Demographics Unit Prepared:
10/27/2006 4:18:18 PM. (n. d.). Retrieved October 27, 2006, from http:// dq.cde. cChoice=dEthGrade&cYear=2004-05&TheCounty=36

Education Commission of the States: Economic/Workforce Development 2004. (n. d.).
Retrieved October 19, 2006, from http://

ETV01 Restructure the Role of the Secretary for Education. (n. d.). Retrieved
October 25, 2006, from

Globalization and the internationalization of research on career and technical education.
(n. d.). Retrieved October28, 2006, from

McCauley, D. (2005). Decline in California’s vocational education must be addressed
Business Journal, 202 (7), 23-25. October 27, 2006,

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